True or False: Robert Koch developed four postulates to demonstrate the association between a microorganism and a disease. True or False: Epidemiology is concerned with the distribution and determinants of health and diseases, morbidity, injuries, disability and mortality in single individuals.
True or False: It is possible for a single case of a disease to represent an epidemic. True or False: John Graunt is said to be the first to employ quantitative methods to describe population vital statistics. True or False: Working during the Renaissance, Paracelsus was one of the founders of the field of health education. True or False: Bubonic plague is a bacterial disease caused by Anthracis pestis. True or False: The Tuskegee study exemplified a research project that violated ethical standards for research.
True or False: A population is defined as all of the inhabitants of a given country or area considered together. True or False: Contact with a disease-causing factor or the amount of the factor that affects a group of individuals is referred to as exposure. True or False: The history of epidemiology originated in the early s. True or False: Primary prevention involves the prevention of disease spread. True or False: Alexander Fleming discovered the antimicrobial properties of Penicillium rotavirum.
True or False: The term epidemiologic transition describes a shift in the patterns of morbidity and mortality from causes related primarily to infectious diseases to causes associated with chronic diseases. True or False: A pandemic is an epidemic occurring worldwide or crossing international boundaries. True or False: Descriptive epidemiology refers to studies that are concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population.
True or False: Epidemiology is an observational science that capitalizes on naturally occurring situations. A vaccine that provided immunity to smallpox was created by: A. John Snow B. Ramazini C. Sir Percival Pott D. Edward Jenner. Epidemiologic methods can be applied to which of the following public health-related fields: A. Health education B.
Health care administration C. Environmental health D. All of the above.Epidemiology Quiz 1 Sam Arent. Identifying the causes of a rare disease B. Identifying the long term effects of a rare exposure C. Studying the health effects of an exposure for which information is difficult and expensive to obtain D. Identifying the causes of new disease about which little is known E. Identifying the short-term health effects of a new exposure about which little is known F.
Identifying the causes of a disease with a long latent period. Case-control B. Retrospective C. Case-control D. Case-control E. Prospective F. The investigator selects women with breast cancer and an age-matched sample of women who live in the same neighborhoods as women with breast cancer. Study subjects are interviewed to determine if they breastfed any of their children. Women with stage 1 breast cancer are randomized to receive either lumpectomy alone or lumpectomy with breast radiation.
Women are followed for five years to determine if there are any differences in breast cancer recurrence and survival. The women were followed for years to determine the incidence rates of breast cancer in each group. The investigators found a strong association between soft drink consumption and diabetes mortality. Based on this study we can conclude that the individuals who consumed soft drinks were the ones who died from diabetes.
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Upgrade Cancel. Shuffle Toggle On. Card Range To Study through. What makes a study analytical? Comparison between two or more groups makes it analytical. Host, vector, agent and environment. What type of epidemiology is being descriped, characterized by person, place, time; no interventions provided, assessment of potential causes, establish a working case efinition, hypothesis suggested and public health intervention suggested?
Descriptive epidemiology. In order to be causal what are the two components which need to be present? Necessary and sufficient. What is the essential link between clinical medicine and public health? Case reports.
Lesson 1: Introduction to Epidemiology
Define: A particular group of individuals that share a common characteristic. Groups to be studied in a cohort study are defined on what basis? On the basis of their exposure status exposed, vs not exposed.
Define: Tells us how fast the disease is occurring in a population. Disease rate. Define: Allos us to compare one population to another.
Disease ratio. Define: Tells us what fraction of the population is affected? Disease proportion. What are the two components of a rate?Now that you have read Lesson 1 and have completed the exercises, you should be ready to take the self-assessment quiz. This quiz is designed to help you assess how well you have learned the content of this lesson.
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Epidemiology And Biostatistics Quiz 1 (Lec 1-3)
Return to text. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Lesson 1: Introduction to Epidemiology. Minus Related Pages. Self-Assessment Quiz Now that you have read Lesson 1 and have completed the exercises, you should be ready to take the self-assessment quiz. Unless instructed otherwise, choose ALL correct answers for each question. Testing for norovirus is not readily available in any nearby island, and the test takes several days even where available.
Age of passenger Detailed food history what person ate while aboard ship Status as passenger or crew Symptoms When analyzing surveillance data by age, which of the following age groups is preferred? Choose one best answer 1-year age groups 5-year age groups year age groups Depends on the disease A study in which children are randomly assigned to receive either a newly formulated vaccine or the currently available vaccine, and are followed to monitor for side effects and effectiveness of each vaccine, is an example of which type of study?
Experimental Observational Cohort Case-control Clinical trial British investigators conducted a study to compare measles-mumps-rubella MMR vaccine history among 1, children with pervasive development disorder e. They found no association. This is an example of which type s of study? Figure 1. Lesson 1 Overview.
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Study these flashcards. Jessica S. Uses of epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiologists work with What influences disease transmission: Epidemiologic Triad. Iceberg concept.
Circumstances for Herd Immunity. Epidemic curve. What determines an epidemic? Flu-Serv Net. Sources of data MDH looks at.
Unimodal Curve. Epidemic curve has Steps to investigating an outbreak. John Snow. Smallpox eradication. Incident case. Difference between numerator in incidence vs. Low incidence, but high prevalence. High incidence and low prevalence. Sources of mortality statistics.
When is mortality rate a good index for incidence rate? Age specific mortality rate. Case-Fatality Rate. Proportionate Mortality. How is proportionate mortality related to the mortality rate? Natural History.
Sources of Natural History data.The same is true in characterizing epidemiologic events, whether it be an outbreak of norovirus among cruise ship passengers or the use of mammograms to detect early breast cancer.
The word epidemiology comes from the Greek words epimeaning on or upon, demosmeaning people, and logosmeaning the study of. In other words, the word epidemiology has its roots in the study of what befalls a population.
Many definitions have been proposed, but the following definition captures the underlying principles and public health spirit of epidemiology:.
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populationsand the application of this study to the control of health problems 1. Epidemiology is a scientific discipline with sound methods of scientific inquiry at its foundation.
Epidemiology is data-driven and relies on a systematic and unbiased approach to the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. Basic epidemiologic methods tend to rely on careful observation and use of valid comparison groups to assess whether what was observed, such as the number of cases of disease in a particular area during a particular time period or the frequency of an exposure among persons with disease, differs from what might be expected.
However, epidemiology also draws on methods from other scientific fields, including biostatistics and informatics, with biologic, economic, social, and behavioral sciences. In fact, epidemiology is often described as the basic science of public health, and for good reason. First, epidemiology is a quantitative discipline that relies on a working knowledge of probability, statistics, and sound research methods. Second, epidemiology is a method of causal reasoning based on developing and testing hypotheses grounded in such scientific fields as biology, behavioral sciences, physics, and ergonomics to explain health-related behaviors, states, and events.
However, epidemiology is not just a research activity but an integral component of public health, providing the foundation for directing practical and appropriate public health action based on this science and causal reasoning. Epidemiology is concerned with the frequency and pattern of health events in a population:. Frequency refers not only to the number of health events such as the number of cases of meningitis or diabetes in a population, but also to the relationship of that number to the size of the population.
The resulting rate allows epidemiologists to compare disease occurrence across different populations. Pattern refers to the occurrence of health-related events by time, place, and person. Time patterns may be annual, seasonal, weekly, daily, hourly, weekday versus weekend, or any other breakdown of time that may influence disease or injury occurrence. Personal characteristics include demographic factors which may be related to risk of illness, injury, or disability such as age, sex, marital status, and socioeconomic status, as well as behaviors and environmental exposures.
Characterizing health events by time, place, and person are activities of descriptive epidemiologydiscussed in more detail later in this lesson. Determinant: any factor, whether event, characteristic, or other definable entity, that brings about a change in a health condition or other defined characteristic. Epidemiology is also used to search for determinantswhich are the causes and other factors that influence the occurrence of disease and other health-related events.
Epidemiologists assume that illness does not occur randomly in a population, but happens only when the right accumulation of risk factors or determinants exists in an individual.
They assess whether groups with different rates of disease differ in their demographic characteristics, genetic or immunologic make-up, behaviors, environmental exposures, or other so-called potential risk factors.Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. A, B, D, E. A, C, D. Epidemiology includes assessment of the distribution including describing demographic characteristics of an affected populationdeterminants including a study of possible risk factorsand the application to control health problems such as closing a restaurant.
It does not generally include the actual treatment of individuals, which is the responsibility of health-care providers.
Lesson 1: Introduction to Epidemiology
B, C, D. Public health surveillance includes collection Banalysis Cand dissemination D of public health information to help guide public health decision making and action, but it does not include individual clinical diagnosis, nor does it include the actual public health actions that are developed based on the information.
The hallmark feature of an analytic epidemiologic study is use of an appropriate comparison group. A case definition for a field investigation should include clinical criteria, plus specification of time, place, and person.
The case definition should be independent of the exposure you wish to evaluate. Depending on the availability of laboratory confirmation, certainty of diagnosis, and other factors, a case definition may or may not be developed for suspect cases. The nationally agreed standard case definition for disease reporting is usually quite specific, and usually does not include suspect or possible cases.
A specific or tight case definition is one that is likely to include only or mostly true cases, but at the expense of excluding milder or atypical cases. Rates assess risk. Numbers are generally preferred for identifying individual cases and for resource planning. An epidemic curve, with date or time of onset on its x-axis and number of cases on the y-axis, is the classic graph for displaying the time course of an epidemic. A, B, C. It generally does not include clinical features characteristics or exposures.
Epidemiologists tailor descriptive epidemiology to best describe the data they have. Because different diseases have different age distributions, epidemiologists use different age breakdowns appropriate for the disease of interest.
A study in which subjects are randomized into two intervention groups and monitored to identify health outcomes is a clinical trial, which is type of experimental study. It is not a cohort study, because that term is limited to observational studies. A study that assesses but does not dictate exposure and follows to document subsequent occurrence of disease is an observational cohort study. A study in which subjects are enrolled on the basis of having or not having a health outcome is an observational case-control study.
MMR vaccination and pervasive developmental disorders.